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基肥和播种密度对冬小麦干物质积累及光合特性和产量的影响
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引用本文:陈 宏,张保军,海江波,董永利,刘天煜,赵凯男.基肥和播种密度对冬小麦干物质积累及光合特性和产量的影响[J].西北农业学报,2019,28(12):1969~1977
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2019.12.008
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作者单位
陈 宏,张保军,海江波,董永利,刘天煜,赵凯男 (西北农林科技大学 农学院陕西杨凌 712100) 
基金项目:冬小麦立体匀播机械化高产试验示范项目(k4030216124); 旱地小麦新品种集雨高效栽培技术研究与示范项目(k336021501)。
中文摘要:为探究不同基肥和播种密度对冬小麦‘西农805’干物质积累及光合特性和产量的影响。采用双因素裂区试验设计,以基肥为主区,设施小麦缓释肥(P1)和常规氮磷钾肥配施(P2)2个处理,以播种密度为副区,设112.5 kg/hm2(D1)、150 kg/hm2(D2)、187.5 kg/hm2(D3)、225 kg/hm2(D4) 4个水平。结果表明:不同基肥对小麦旗叶干物质积累量、旗叶的SPAD值、净光合速率、气孔导度、胞间CO2浓度、蒸腾速率均未达显著影响,对小麦单位面积穗数、千粒质量有显著影响;播种密度对小麦净光合速率、胞间CO2浓度、千粒质量、产量有极显著影响;在同一基肥条件下低播种密度处理的小麦单茎干物质积累量及旗叶SPAD值较高;基肥和播种密度的交互作用对小麦净光合速率、产量有极显著影响;在施用小麦缓释肥条件下150 kg/hm2播种密度的光合特性及产量优于其他处理,在常规氮磷钾肥配施条件下187.5 kg/hm2播种密度的光合特性及产量优于其他处理,小麦籽粒产量达到最大为5 722.02 kg/hm2。综合来看,冬小麦‘西农805’最佳基肥和播种密度为P2D3。
中文关键词:基肥  播种密度  冬小麦  干物质积累  光合特性  产量
 
Effects of Base Fertilizers and Sowing Densities on Dry Matter Accumulation,Photosynthetic Characteristics and Yield of Winter Wheat
Abstract:To explore the effects of different base fertilizers and seeding densities on dry matter accumulation,photosynthetic characteristics and yield of winter wheat ‘Xinong 805’.Two-factor rip-zone test design was used.Base fertilizerwas applied in the main area,two fertilizers patterns of wheat slow release fertilizer(P1) and combined application of N,P and K conventional fertilizer(P2) were conducted,four levels of sowing density in sub-area,including 112.5 kg/hm2(D1),150 kg/hm2(D2),187.5 kg/hm2(D3),225 kg/hm2(D4),the results showed that different base fertilizers did not have significant effects on the dry matter accumulation of flag leaf,SPAD value of flag leaf,net photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate,but it had significant effects on the number of spikes per plant area and 1 000-grain mass; the sowing density had a significant effect on the net photosynthetic rate,intercellular CO2 concentration,1 000-grain mass and yield of wheat; single stem dry matter of wheat and the SPAD value of flag leaf under low sowing density and the same base fertilizer condition was higher; the interaction between base fertilizer and sowing density reached a very significantly high level in the net photosynthetic rate and yield of wheat; under the condition of wheat slow release fertilizer and sowing density of 150 kg/hm2,the photosynthesis characteristics and yield performance were too much higher than other treatments,under the condition of combined application of N,P and K conventional fertilizer and sowing density of 187.5 kg/hm2,the photosynthesis characteristics and yield performance were more better than other treatments; under the condition of combined application of N,P and K conventional fertilizer and sowing density 187.5 kg/hm2,the wheat grain yield reached the maximum of 5 722.02 kg/hm2.In summary,the best base fertilizer type and sowing density of winter wheat ‘Xinong 805’ is P2D3.
keywords:Base fertilizers  Sowing densities  Winter wheat  Dry matter accumulation  Photosynthetic characteristics  Yield
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