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施肥对甜柿果实品质、产量及预防顶腐病的影响
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引用本文:井赵斌,夏宏义,杨 勇,阮小凤.施肥对甜柿果实品质、产量及预防顶腐病的影响[J].西北农业学报,2018,27(12):1819~1826
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2018.12.015
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作者单位
井赵斌,夏宏义,杨 勇,阮小凤 (1.西北农林科技大学 园艺学院陕西杨凌 7121002.渭南职业技术学院陕西渭南 7140263.渭南市果业研究院陕西渭南 7140264.十堰市农业科学院湖北十堰 442000) 
基金项目:农业部种质资源保护项目(2017NWB035);科技部国家农作物种质资源共享服务平台(NICGR2017-50);陕西省科技统筹创新工程计划(2016KTTSNY01-02,2016KTTSNY01-06)。
中文摘要:为明确叶面喷施钙肥、土施土壤调理剂、土施有机肥+种草对甜柿柿果实品质、产量和预防顶腐病发生的影响,为甜柿高效栽培提供科学依据。以甜柿品种‘阳丰’为参试材料,设置不施肥(CK)、喷施蓝钙、喷施钙博士、蓝钙+土壤调理剂、钙博士+土壤调理剂、有机肥+种草6个处理的田间试验,研究不同处理对‘阳丰’柿果实品质,矿质元素、产量及顶腐病防治效果的影响。结果表明:与对照相比(1)喷施蓝钙、喷施钙博士、喷施蓝钙+土壤调理剂、喷施钙博士+土壤调理剂、有机肥+种草5种不同施肥处理均能显著改善‘阳丰’柿果实品质,其中有机肥+种草处理效果最好,该处理中果实质量、硬度、蛋白质、粗纤维、总糖、果糖、葡萄糖、总黄酮、维生素C、维生素B1和维生素B2与对照相比分别提高了16.27%、10.07%、32.14%、32.41%、35.96%、16.73%、23.12%、31.72%、17.70%、45.87%和45.75%。(2)钙博士、蓝钙+土壤调理剂、钙博士+土壤调理剂和有机肥+种草可以显著地增加阳丰果实产量,4个处理2 a平均667 m产分别比对照增加228.2 kg、389.05 kg、500.5 kg和695.35 kg。(3)蓝钙+土壤调理剂、钙博士+土壤调理剂对顶腐病的防治效果最优,防治率达58.5%以上。生产中建议可以采用有机肥+种草及适量补充钙肥的措施来改善甜柿柿果实品质、提高产量,预防柿顶腐病的发生。
中文关键词:  土壤调理剂  有机肥  种草  ‘阳丰’柿果实  品质  顶腐病
 
Effects of Different Fertilization Regimes on Quality, Production and the Incidence of Blossom-end Rot of Sweet Persimmon
Abstract:In order to clarify the effects of calcium, soil conditioner, and organic fertilizer and grow grass practice on quality and the incidence of blossom-end rot of ‘Youhou’ persimmon, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the impacts of fertilization measures on nutrient elements, mineral elements, amino acid content and component in the persimmon fruit by the following six treatments:no fertilizer (CK), blue calcium, Dr. calcium, blue calcium soil conditioner, Dr. calcium and soil conditioner, and organic fertilizer grow grass. Results indicated that compared with control (CK), (1) Blue calcium, Dr. calcium, blue calcium and soil conditioner, Dr. calcium and soil conditioner, and organic fertilizer and grow grass treatments can significantly improve the quality of fruits, especially organic fertilizer and grow grass was the best. For organic fertilizer and grow grass treatment, the single fruit mass, fruit firmness, protein, crude fiber, total sugar, fructose, glucose, total flavone, vitamin C, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2 increased by 16.27%,10.07%,32.14%,32.41%,35.96%,16.73%,23.12%,31.72%,17.70%,45.87% and 45.75%.(2) Dr. calcium, blue calcium and soil conditioner, Dr. calcium and soil conditioner, and organic fertilizer and grow grass treatments can effectively increase the yield of ‘Youhou’ persimmon, and yield per 667 m increased 228.2 kg,389.05 kg,500.5 kg and 695.35 kg compared with control.(3) The inhibiting effects of blossom-end rot showed that the best treatments were blue calcium and soil conditioner, Dr. calcium and soil conditioner, and the control rate reached 58.5%. We suggested that organic fertilizer and grow grass combined with appropriate calcium could be as an efficient fertilization practice to improve the quality and prevent the blossom-end rot of persimmon.
keywords:Calcium  Soil conditioner  Organic fertilizer  Grow grass  ‘Youhou’ persimmon  Quality  Blossom-end rot
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