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耕作方式对旱作农田土壤水热特性及夏玉米产量的影响
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引用本文:张俊丽,Sikander Khan Tanveer,薛 菁,邹 宏,董晓梅,李 康,拜翊莎.耕作方式对旱作农田土壤水热特性及夏玉米产量的影响[J].西北农业学报,2017,26(10):1446~1452
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2017.10.005
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作者单位
张俊丽,Sikander Khan Tanveer,薛 菁,邹 宏,董晓梅,李 康,拜翊莎 (1.渭南市农业技术推广中心 陕西渭南 7140002.巴基斯坦国家农业研究中心 小麦研究组巴基斯坦 伊斯兰堡 44000) 
中文摘要:设置田间定位试验,研究免耕(NT)、深松耕(DT)和旋耕(RT)对旱作玉米田土壤体积质量、土壤水分、土壤温度及夏玉米产量等的影响。2 a研究结果表明,采取耕作措施后,各处理土壤体积质量差异主要集中在0~40 cm(P<0.05),耕作前后40~60 cm土壤体积质量差异不显著(P>0.05)。耕作方式对土壤储水量有明显影响,其中,播种后0~50 d,深松耕和免耕处理0~100 cm土壤储水量均高于旋耕;播种后70~ 120 d ,3种耕作方式下土壤储水量差异不显著(P>0.05)。各耕作措施对土壤温度的影响在作物生育前期(播种后0~30 d)表现明显(P<0.05),表现为旋耕玉米田土壤温度高于免耕和深松耕,播种后50~120 d各处理间无显著差异(P>0.05)。深松耕和旋耕处理玉米籽粒产量较免耕分别高3.35%和1.91%。结合经济效益分析,免耕和深松耕净收入较旋耕分别高138.48元/hm和259.38元/hm。因此,深松耕为旱作夏玉米田较适宜的耕作方式。
中文关键词:耕作方式  土壤水分  土壤温度  产量  夏玉米
 
Effects of Different Tillage Systems on Soil Temperature and Moisture in Dryland Field and Summer Maize Yield
Abstract:A comparative study were conducted from 2010 and 2011 in dryland area of Loess Plateau in China for investigating the effect of different tillage systems including deep tillage(DT),no tillage(NT) and rotary tillage(RT) on soil bulk density, soil temperature, soil moisture as well as summer maize yield after tillage practices, the results of two years studies indicated that differences of soil volume mass in various treatments were mainly concentrated in the profile 0-40 cm while differences in the profile of 40-60 cm were not statistically significant. It is suggested that tillage management had a obvious effect on soil water storage.0-50 days after sowing (DAS), soil water storage of 0-100 cm under DT and NT treatments was higher than that of RT treatment; for 70-120 DAS, the difference of soil water storage under three tillage practices failed to reach significant level. The effect of tillage practice on soil temperature was significant at earlier stage (0-30 DAS), and it showed RT treated soil temperature was higher than that of DT and NT treatment, while the disparity of various treatments was not obtained statistically significant level at late stage (50-120 DAS). The grain yield of maize treated by DT and RT was 3.35% and 1.91% higher than that of NT, respectively. Combining with economic benefits analysis, the net income of DT and NT was 259.38 yuan/hm and 138.48 yuan/hm-2 higher than that of RT. Consequently, deep tillage was an appropriate tillage practice for summer maize.
keywords:Tillage system  Soil moisture  Soil temperature  Yield  Summer maize
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